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SECTION 3: ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS SPECIFIC TO RESEARCH METHODS OR FIELDS

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❶Describe the purpose and function of the Institutional Review Board. Furthermore, in investigations of sensitive topics where written consent puts the informants at risk, audio recorded oral consent would be more appropriate

Introduction

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Ethical Issues

The use of an IRB also helps to protect the institution and the researchers against potential legal implications from any behavior that may be deemed unethical. Examples of some of these issues include voluntary participation and informed consent. These principles are followed to guarantee that all respondents are choosing to participate in the survey of their own free will and that they have been fully informed regarding the procedures of the research project and any potential risks.

This is typically not a problem in survey research because a cover letter or introductory statement is used to introduce the survey and provide information regarding the purpose, intent, motivation, sponsoring organizations, potential use of data, and methods of data collection. Issues of confidentiality are also typically covered in this introduction.

Therefore, the potential respondent is fully informed prior to completing the survey. Potential participants also must be competent to make a decision regarding participation and must be free from any coercion.

Responding to Minimthe survey should be completely voluntary and the respondent is consenting to be part of the research project by completing the survey. Ethical standards also protect the confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects. This is the primary ethical issue in survey research, especially if the survey contains sensitive questions.

Researchers should not share information between participants and should have procedures in place to protect the data and names of participants. Only research personnel should have access to the data and any identifying information and this access should be limited to only what is necessary for the project.

If the researcher plans to follow up with reminders or additional surveys at a later date, true anonymity may not be possible. However, if possible, as in the case of a one-time telephone survey regarding political beliefs, identifying information should not even be recorded.

Using tools such as encryption technology for internet surveys and numbering of respondent data can help to reduce possible confidentiality breaches. Following is a list of tips and best practices that help address many of the ethical concerns discussed in this module: Ethical Considerations in Surveys — The resource linked here describes ethical concerns related to surveys in detail, with an emphasis on cultural and social issues.

Principles of Research Ethics — The following link describes basic ethical considerations for any research project involving human subjects. What is an IRB and its Purpose?

What is the purpose of an IRB and how does a researcher know when they need to use it? The following website discusses common codes and policies regarding ethics in research. Ethical Issues in Conducting Research — The following link is PDF that offers a comprehensive discussion of ethical issues in conducting research. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires.

Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. An appropriate planning should be in place before the commencement of the fieldwork, and it must be perfectly clear how the study should be conducted and what level of relationship development is necessary.

Measures must also be taken so that levels of self-disclosure, objective displays of emotion during the interviews, and strategies to end the relationships are well defined and communicated.

One of the most prominent tasks of qualitative researchers is to minimize the flaws in observation and endeavor to gain truthful knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary for researchers to continuously update their investigation skills in terms of methodology and find novel techniques to better carry out studies in the field of health and sociology. As explained before, qualitative research is carried out in natural settings, which requires researchers to work in close collaboration with other members of the team and under direct supervision to discuss and resolve issues as they arise.

Therefore, development of practical strategies and communicating them to researchers can be of great benefit and assist them in conducting more perceptive qualitative studies. As a result of the extensive body of research in the field of medical sciences, patients comprise a large proportion of the public who are frequently subjects of studies.

In the history of social and medical science, there have been a few research studies that seriously injured people, and many more in which their welfare was not sufficiently protected. Nations and research associations have taken steps to prevent hurtful and intrusive research.

To return to the matter of privacy, the researcher should not rely solely on the informant to identify possible intrusion, but needs to work at anticipating it in advance. Investigators should refrain from soliciting private information that is not closely related to the research question. Considering the aforementioned challenges, it is recommended to conduct further research in order to provide meticulous and explicit ethical protocols, guidelines and codes with respect to qualitative studies.

The authors would like to offer special thanks to Dr. Ali Tootee for his assistance in the language editing of this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Med Ethics Hist Med. Find articles by Mohammad Ali Cheraghi. Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Address: Received Jan 1; Accepted Jul 7.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Considering the nature of qualitative studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging for the former, as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Introduction In the recent millennium, the constant trend of change in the demands of the community as well as transforming the trend of knowledge production has highlighted the necessity for researchers to adopt a more comprehensive approach.

An overview on qualitative research in health care Up to the s, qualitative research was solely employed by anthropologists and sociologists. Role of researchers in qualitative studies In the case of nurses who perform qualitative research, ethical issues are raised when the nurse-patient relationship in the research area leads to some degree of therapeutic communication for the participants 9. They bring individual experiences into words in data collection, and then attempt to understand those experiences based on the statements, and to categorize the themes in the next stage.

In the last stage, investigators record the essence in writing, which results in a comprehensive description of the phenomena 6 , Grounded theory Considering the significance of personal relations in grounded theory, researchers act as a component of daily events and must therefore be completely aware of their values. Since there is no control in this natural field, investigators are not detached from the research process, and ought to be conscious of their prejudices and potential influence on the study.

Researchers need to be able to perform data admission and coding concurrently, and should consequently be equipped with proper analysis skills in order to criticize and conduct abstract thinking 16 , Ethnography In ethnographic studies, researchers function as instruments that understand and analyze the culture.

Therefore, ethnographic investigators need to be immersed in the culture and to live among the study population. However, ethnographers have to be notified of their role as research instruments while collecting and analyzing data Open in a separate window.

Ethical challenges in qualitative studies: The researcher-participant relationship The relationship and intimacy that is established between the researchers and participants in qualitative studies can raise a range of different ethical concerns, and qualitative researchers face dilemmas such as respect for privacy, establishment of honest and open interactions, and avoiding misrepresentations Research design The qualitative method is utilized to explain, clarify and elaborate the meanings of different aspects of the human life experience.

Data gathering and data analysis In qualitative research, data are collected with a focus on multifaceted interviews and narratives to produce a description of the experiences. Conclusion In qualitative studies, researchers have a great responsibility and play many different roles. Acknowledgments The authors would like to offer special thanks to Dr. Why do qualitative research?

The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Studying How Things Work. Pope C, Mays N. Qualitative Research in Health Care. Holloway I, Wheeler S. Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare. Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative. Wolters Kluwer health; Qualitative Research in Health: Grove SK, Burns N.

The Practice of Nursing Research. Eide P, Kahn D. Ethical issues in the qualitative researcher—participant relationship. A Guide for Fieldworkers. The role of the researcher in the qualitative research process: Forum Qual Soc Res. A Guide to Methods. Contributions of qualitative research to the validity of intervention research. Ethical and methodologic benefits of using a reflexive journal in hermeneutic-phenomenologic research.

Image J Nurs Sch. According to Levine, restricting these groups from research could end in disadvantaging those populations, even further, especially when research involves no risk and a high potential for benefit.

With regard to nurse researchers, the International Council of Nurses declares that they are not responsible for the care of patients. They should only intervene in case that "a harmful situation appears imminent".

This statement is not congruent with the culture of nursing which is "intertwined with the ethic of caring". If a researcher nurse provides physical or psychological care during an interview, the results will be biased and generalisation will be difficult. Burns and Grove suggest that in case that support from the researcher is required, then, it should be given, but the subjects should be excluded from the research.

Nevertheless, most health professionals, no matter how skilled they are in supportive techniques will provide some care if they feel that it is needed in a certain case. This is necessary in order to come into terms with the issue of the researcher's values relative to the individual's rights versus the interests of society. Professional codes, laws, regulations, and ethics committees can provide some guidance but the final determinant of how research is performed, rests with the researcher's value system and moral code.

To prepare future nurses, ethics in research, must receive special attention in nursing curricula. The criticism and uncertainties that arise, should be rather encouraged than suppressed in nursing education. Hunt suggests that in order to liberate nursing from its "technocratic impasse" ethics should be broadly interpreted as an arena of new ideas which can change professional hierarchies, to open cross-disciplinary discussions, and question the concepts "abnormality", "patient" and " illness".

He also declares that nursing, not as a biomedical branch, but as a science and art of caring, is able to start the redefinition of research in health care which was in the recent history dominated by the biomedical "paradigm". All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Mantzorou Marianna 13, Tassopoulou str. Visit for more related articles at Health Science Journal.

Keywords Research ethics, moral dilemmas in research, nature of nursing, nursing research, nursing advocacy Introduction Ethics is rooted in the ancient Greek philosophical inquiry of moral life.

Historical overview- Ethical codes Human experimentation has been conducted even before 18th century. Beauchamp and Childress, suggest that " the principle of beneficence includes the professional mandate to do effective and significant research so as to better serve and promote the welfare of our constituents ".

Another issue is that the researcher may have to report confidential information to courts which can also cause moral dilemmas. Respect for privacy The fifth principle of the entitled "A Patient's Bill of rights" document published in by the American Hospital Association AHA , affirm the patient's right of privacy. Skills of the researcher Jameton declares that in research the three more important elements are the competency of the researcher, the careful design, and worthwhile expected outcomes.

Advocacy in nursing Advocacy primarily used in legal contexts, refers to the protection of human rights of people who cannot defend them for themselves. Conflicts in nurses Beneficence-Non malificence A common feature in professional conduct codes and those specific to research is the principle of non-malificence. Confidentiality The issue of confidentiality which is stated as very important in the Hippocratic oath, is another possible issue of conflict for nurses either as practitioners or researchers.

Conclusion Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research. Research Ethics and Nursing Science: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ; Moral dilemmas in Nursing Research. Nursing Practice, ;4 4: Nursing Research in the U.

International Journal of Nursing Studies, ;27 1: The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique, and utilization 5th ed. Informed Consent of special subjects. Professional and Ethical issues in Nursing. Ethics in Nursing Research: Nursing Research, ;26 5: Ethical dilemmas associated with small samples.

Journal of Advanced Nursing, ;15, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, R4 the real world of research. Nursing Times, ; What method for Nursing? Ethics at the bedside, Lippincot, Philadelphia. Foundations of Nursing Research, 5th ed, Prentice Hall, American Hospital Association, Privacy and Research with Human Beings. Journal of Social Issues, ; Integrating science and ethics in research with high risk children and youth. Social Policy Report, ; Vol. Examining Informed consent in Persons with Schizophrenia.

Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ;29 4: Some ethical problems in clinical investigation. What is Nursing Ethics? Nurse Education Today, ; Clarifying or obscuring the nature of Nursing? Nursing Science Quarterly, ;4: Unique theory-is it essential in the development of a science of Nursing?

Nursing as informed caring for the well-being of others. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, ;25 4: Theory and Nursing, a systematic approach. Can knowledge be promoted and values ignored? Implications for nursing education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, ;15 5: On Caring, New York, N. Harper and Row, The human act of caring. A blueprint for the health profession. Canadian Hospital Association, Ontario, Culture care diversity and universality: National League for Nursing, Conceptual Bases of professional Nursing.

From loyalty to advocacy: Hastings Center Report, ;14 6: Spicker SF, Gadow S, eds.

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Ethical Issues There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary social and medical research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants.

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When most people think of research ethics, they think about issues that arise when research involves human or animal subjects. This means that you need to report your research honestly, and that this applies to your methods (what you did), your data, your results, and whether you have previously published any of it. You should not make up.

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What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing?, Mantzorou Marianna. Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of the research. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. According to Bryman and Bell ()[1] the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations.

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Obviously,ethical issues can be raised throughout all phases of research, notably problem definition,stating research objectives/ hypotheses, literature review, choice of research design,questionnaire design, data collection procedures, data editing and cleaning, choice ofstatistical methods, data analysis, conclusions and recommendations, and. The handling of these ethical issues greatly impact the integrity of the research project and can affect whether or not the project receives funding. Because ethical considerations are so important in research, many professional associations and agencies have adopted codes and policies that outline ethical behavior and guide researchers.