Remember that this is not a review paper. Break up the introduction section into logical segments by using subheads. Methods What belongs in the "methods" section of a scientific paper? Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your results. Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. Description of your materials, procedure, theory.
Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots. Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Desciption of your analystical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software. The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats: Could one accurately replicate the study for example, all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data?
Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment? If the data are in the public domain, could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used? Could one replicate any statistical analyses? Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software?
Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures.
Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Indicate information on range of variation. Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion. Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.
Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant.
Writing for an Audience Who is your audience? Researchers working in analogous field areas elsewhere in the world i. Researchers working in your field area, but with different techniques. Researchers working on the same interval of geologic time elsewhere in the world.
All other researchers using the same technique you have used. If your study encompasses an active process, researchers working on the same process in the ancient record. Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs. People writing a synthesis paper on important new developments in your field. People applying earth science to societal problems i.
Potential reviewers of your manuscript or your thesis committee. Planning Ahead for Your Thesis. Writing for an Audience. Writing for an International Audience. Abstract A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important.
It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative. Absrtracts generally do not have citations. Information in title should not be repeated.
Use numbers where appropriate. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? What did you learn? Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication. Table of Contents list all headings and subheadings with page numbers indent subheadings it will look something like this: How do you do this?
Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs. Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures. Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ". Don't worry if "results" seem short. Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required. Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results. The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations?
Refer to spatial and temporal variations. What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes mechanisms underlying these patterns resulting predictions?
Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc?
There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one.
If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination.
A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results.
Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper? Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.
Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion. Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Child Review of ciliary structure and function.
Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc.
List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument.
Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in. The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section. It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots.
When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data. In addition to that, it should aid in steering your writing and preserving your emphasis. You ought to deliver the thesis in the first section of the paper. If the essay is a short one, include the thesis statement in the introduction. If your paper has a larger size, place it in the second paragraph. By adding the thesis statement at the beginning of the essay, you can illustrate your attitude and grant the audience a feeling of guidance.
As mentioned earlier, a thesis statement ought to be very straightforward and particular. Usually, your thesis is improved as you re-examine your arguments. In other words, your thesis will progress and acquire meaning as you attain an enhanced comprehension of the direction in which the argument is heading. If that is the case, think of a particular emphasis.
Afterwards, move on with additional progress. The thesis statement of any essay ought to be restricted to what you can achieve while sticking to the designated word count. In other words, you should explore more than just the surface area. Instead of being generic, extensive and trivial, your thesis statement ought to be concentrated, narrow and fresh.
Take a look at the comparison between the initial thesis too universal presented below and the three potential adaptations more concentrated, showcasing distinct approaches to the same subject.
The thesis statement of your essay must be as obvious as possible. The same goes for the rest of your content. Unless you make sure that you provide a clear explanation, such terms cannot send any explicit message to the audience.
You must never infer that the significance of a phrase is evident. Afterwards, think about where it would be better to define such terms. Make a comparison between the original thesis lacking particularity and straightforwardness and the adapted version considerably more particular and straightforward: In spite of the fact that the gray wolf is an easily frightened and mild critter, people are gradually eradicating it.
If this animal is so mild, why are people eradicating it? In spite of the fact that the gray wolf is, in fact, an easily frightened and mild critter, people are gradually eradicating it because they unjustly regard it as a ferocious and bloodthirsty beast. The thesis statement ought to represent more than a mere presentation of the subject. No matter what you do, steer clear of universal arguments and formula assertions. Such techniques are good for creating an outline for your paper, but will undoubtedly annoy the audience.
Proceed with reexamining the thesis until it mirrors your genuine viewpoints. Do not use formula and universal terms. Seek tangible topics and active verbs. Here are a couple of examples that illustrate the way in which particular word uses emphasize and elucidate the significance.
When writing the thesis statement, you must utilize your own words.
Do not expect to come up with a fully formulated thesis statement before you have finished writing the paper. The thesis will inevitably change as you revise and develop your ideas—and that is ok!
But the most common place for a thesis statement (and probably why you’re reading this article) is in an essay. Whether you’re writing an argumentative paper, an informative essay, or a compare/contrast statement, you need a thesis.
What this handout is about. This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft. For students especially, crafting a thesis statement can be a challenge, but it's important to know how to write one because a thesis statement is the heart of any essay you write. Here are some tips and examples to follow.
A strong thesis statement gives direction to the paper and limits what you need to write about. It also functions to inform your readers of what you will discuss in the body of the paper. It also functions to inform your readers of what you will discuss in the body of the paper. How to Write a Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement? Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of .