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John Keats

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Many students expand their view of the world during their time in college. Such growth often results from encounters between students who have lived different cultural, economic, or academic experiences. It was only by the midth century that it began to be praised, although it is now considered to be one of the greatest odes in the English language. By the spring of , Keats had left his job as dresser, or assistant house surgeon, at Guy's Hospital , Southwark , London, to devote himself entirely to the composition of poetry.

Living with his friend Charles Brown, the year-old was burdened with money problems and despaired when his brother George sought his financial assistance. These real-world difficulties may have given Keats pause for thought about a career in poetry, yet he did manage to complete five odes, including "Ode to a Nightingale", "Ode to Psyche", "Ode on Melancholy", "Ode on Indolence", and "Ode on a Grecian Urn". Their exact date of composition is unknown; Keats simply dated "Ode on a Grecian Urn" May , as he did its companion odes.

While the five poems display a unity in stanza forms and themes, the unity fails to provide clear evidence of the order in which they were composed. In the odes of Keats explores his contemplations about relationships between the soul, eternity, nature, and art. His idea of using classical Greek art as a metaphor originated in his reading of Haydon's Examiner articles of 2 May and 9 May In the first article, Haydon described Greek sacrifice and worship, and in the second article, he contrasted the artistic styles of Raphael and Michelangelo in conjunction with a discussion of medieval sculptures.

Keats's inspiration for the topic was not limited to Haydon, but embraced many contemporary sources. Many contemporary essays and articles on these works shared Keats's view that classical Greek art was both idealistic and captured Greek virtues.

Although he was influenced by examples of existing Greek vases, in the poem he attempted to describe an ideal artistic type, rather than a specific original vase. Although "Ode on a Grecian Urn" was completed in May , its first printing came in January when it was published with "Ode to a Nightingale" in the Annals of Fine Art , an art magazine that promoted views on art similar to those Keats held. In , Keats had attempted to write sonnets, but found that the form did not satisfy his purpose because the pattern of rhyme worked against the tone that he wished to achieve.

When he turned to the ode form, he found that the standard Pindaric form used by poets such as John Dryden was inadequate for properly discussing philosophy.

Keats's creation established a new poetic tone that accorded with his aesthetic ideas about poetry. He further altered this new form in "Ode to a Nightingale" and "Ode on a Grecian Urn" by adding a secondary voice within the ode, creating a dialogue between two subjects.

Keats broke from the traditional use of ekphrasis found in Theocritus 's Idyll , a classical poem that describes a design on the sides of a cup. While Theocritus describes both motion found in a stationary artwork and underlying motives of characters, "Ode on a Grecian Urn" replaces actions with a series of questions and focuses only on external attributes of the characters.

The same overall pattern is used in "Ode on Indolence", "Ode on Melancholy", and "Ode to a Nightingale" though their sestet rhyme schemes vary , which makes the poems unified in structure as well as theme. While ode-writers from antiquity adhered to rigid patterns of strophe , antistrophe , and epode , the form by Keats's time had undergone enough transformation that it represented a manner rather than a set method for writing a certain type of lyric poetry.

Keats's odes seek to find a "classical balance" between two extremes, and in the structure of "Ode on a Grecian Urn", these extremes are the symmetrical structure of classical literature and the asymmetry of Romantic poetry. The use of the ABAB structure in the beginning lines of each stanza represents a clear example of structure found in classical literature, and the remaining six lines appear to break free of the traditional poetic styles of Greek and Roman odes.

Keats's metre reflects a conscious development in his poetic style. The poem contains only a single instance of medial inversion the reversal of an iamb in the middle of a line , which was common in his earlier works. However, Keats incorporates spondees in 37 of the metrical feet. Caesurae are never placed before the fourth syllable in a line. The word choice represents a shift from Keats's early reliance on Latinate polysyllabic words to shorter, Germanic words.

In the second stanza, "Ode on a Grecian Urn", which emphasizes words containing the letters "p", "b", and "v", uses syzygy , the repetition of a consonantal sound. The poem incorporates a complex reliance on assonance , which is found in very few English poems.

Within "Ode on a Grecian Urn", an example of this pattern can be found in line 13 "Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd" where the "e" of "sensual" connects with the "e" of "endear'd" and the "ea" of "ear" connects with the "ea" of "endear'd". A more complex form is found in line 11 "Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard" with the "ea" of "Heard" connecting to the "ea" of "unheard", the "o" of "melodies" connecting to the "o" of "those" and the "u" of "but" connecting to the "u" of "unheard".

The poem begins with the narrator's silencing the urn by describing it as the "bride of quietness", which allows him to speak for it using his own impressions. Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness! Thou foster-child of silence and slow time lines 1—2. The urn is a "foster-child of silence and slow time" because it was created from stone and made by the hand of an artist who did not communicate through words. As stone, time has little effect on it and ageing is such a slow process that it can be seen as an eternal piece of artwork.

The urn is an external object capable of producing a story outside the time of its creation, and because of this ability the poet labels it a "sylvan historian" that tells its story through its beauty: Sylvan historian, who canst thus express A flow'ry tale more sweetly than our rhyme: What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shape Of deities or mortals, or of both, In Tempe or the dales of Arcady? What men or gods are these? What struggle to escape?

What pipes and timbrels? The questions presented in these lines are too ambiguous to allow the reader to understand what is taking place in the images on the urn, but elements of it are revealed: Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear'd, Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone: There is a hint of a paradox in that indulgence causes someone to be filled with desire and that music without a sound is desired by the soul.

There is a stasis that prohibits the characters on the urn from ever being fulfilled: Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, Though winning near the goal — yet, do not grieve; She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!

In the third stanza, the narrator begins by speaking to a tree, which will ever hold its leaves and will not "bid the Spring adieu". The paradox of life versus lifelessness extends beyond the lover and the fair lady and takes a more temporal shape as three of the ten lines begin with the words "for ever". The unheard song never ages and the pipes are able to play forever, which leads the lovers, nature, and all involved to be: For ever panting, and for ever young; All breathing human passion far above, That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloyed, A burning forehead, and a parching tongue.

A new paradox arises in these lines because these immortal lovers are experiencing a living death. Who are these coming to the sacrifice? To what green altar, O mysterious priest, Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, And all her silken flanks with garlands drest? What little town by river or sea shore, Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel, Is emptied of its folk, this pious morn?

And, little town, thy streets for evermore Will silent be; and not a soul to tell Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.

All that exists in the scene is a procession of individuals, and the narrator conjectures on the rest. The altar and town exist as part of a world outside art, and the poem challenges the limitations of art through describing their possible existence.

The questions are unanswered because there is no one who can ever know the true answers, as the locations are not real. The final stanza begins with a reminder that the urn is a piece of eternal artwork: The audience is limited in its ability to comprehend the eternal scene, but the silent urn is still able to speak to them. The story it tells is both cold and passionate, and it is able to help mankind. The poem concludes with the urn's message: When old age shall this generation waste, Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou sayst, "Beauty is truth, truth beauty," — that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.

Like many of Keats's odes, "Ode on a Grecian Urn" discusses art and art's audience. He relied on depictions of natural music in earlier poems, and works such as "Ode to a Nightingale" appeal to auditory sensations while ignoring the visual.

Keats reverses this when describing an urn within "Ode on a Grecian Urn" to focus on representational art. He previously used the image of an urn in "Ode on Indolence", depicting one with three figures representing Love, Ambition and Poesy. Of these three, Love and Poesy are integrated into "Ode on a Grecian Urn" with an emphasis on how the urn, as a human artistic construct, is capable of relating to the idea of "Truth". The images of the urn described within the poem are intended as obvious depictions of common activities: The figures are supposed to be beautiful, and the urn itself is supposed to be realistic.

As a symbol, an urn cannot completely represent poetry, but it does serve as one component in describing the relationship between art and humanity. In contrast, being a piece of art, the urn requires an audience and is in an incomplete state on its own. This allows the urn to interact with humanity, to put forth a narrative, and allows for the imagination to operate. The images on the urn provoke the narrator to ask questions, and the silence of the urn reinforces the imagination's ability to operate.

This interaction and use of the imagination is part of a greater tradition called ut pictura poesis — the contemplation of art by a poet — which serves as a meditation upon art itself. The beginning of the poem posits that the role of art is to describe a specific story about those with whom the audience is unfamiliar, and the narrator wishes to know the identity of the figures in a manner similar to "Ode on Indolence" and "Ode to Psyche".

The figures on the urn within "Ode on a Grecian Urn" lack identities, but the first section ends with the narrator believing that if he knew the story, he would know their names. The second section of the poem, describing the piper and the lovers, meditates on the possibility that the role of art is not to describe specifics but universal characters, which falls under the term "Truth".

The three figures would represent how Love, Beauty, and Art are unified together in an idealised world where art represents the feelings of the audience. The audience is not supposed to question the events but instead to rejoice in the happy aspects of the scene in a manner that reverses the claims about art in "Ode to a Nightingale". Similarly, the response of the narrator to the sacrifice is not compatible with the response of the narrator to the lovers. The two contradictory responses found in the first and second scenes of "Ode on a Grecian Urn" are inadequate for completely describing art, because Keats believed that art should not provide history or ideals.

Instead, both are replaced with a philosophical tone that dominates the meditation on art. The sensual aspects are replaced with an emphasis on the spiritual aspects, and the last scene describes a world contained unto itself.

The relationship between the audience with the world is for benefiting or educating, but merely to emphatically connect to the scene.

In the scene, the narrator contemplates where the boundaries of art lie and how much an artist can represent on an urn. The questions the narrator asks reveal a yearning to understand the scene, but the urn is too limited to allow such answers. Furthermore, the narrator is able to visualise more than what actually exists on the urn. This conclusion on art is both satisfying, in that it allows the audience to actually connect with the art, and alienating, as it does not provide the audience the benefit of instruction or narcissistic fulfilment.

In the opening line, he refers to the urn as a "bride of quietness", which serves to contrast the urn with the structure of the ode, a type of poem originally intended to be sung. Another paradox arises when the narrator describes immortals on the side of an urn meant to carry the ashes of the dead.

In terms of the actual figures upon the urn, the image of the lovers depicts the relationship of passion and beauty with art. However, the figures of the urn are able to always enjoy their beauty and passion because of their artistic permanence. Charles Patterson, in a essay, explains that "It is erroneous to assume that here Keats is merely disparaging the bride of flesh wed to man and glorifying the bride of marble wed to quietness.

He could have achieved that simple effect more deftly with some other image than the richly ambivalent unravished bride , which conveys It is natural for brides to be possessed physically This contradiction reveals Keats's belief that such love in general was unattainable and that "The true opponent to the urn-experience of love is not satisfaction but extinction.

The first response to the poem came in an anonymous review in the July Monthly Review , which claimed, "Mr Keats displays no great nicety in his selection of images. According to the tenets of that school of poetry to which he belongs, he thinks that any thing or object in nature is a fit material on which the poet may work Can there be a more pointed concetto than this address to the Piping Shepherds on a Grecian Urn?

Mr Keats, seemingly, can think or write of scarcely any thing else than the 'happy pieties' of Paganism. A Grecian Urn throws him into an ecstasy: That is, all that Mr Keats knows or cares to know. George Gilfillan , in an essay on Keats, placed the poem among "The finest of Keats' smaller pieces" and suggested that "In originality, Keats has seldom been surpassed. His works 'rise like an exhalation. He seems to have been averse to all speculative thought, and his only creed, we fear, was expressed in the words— Beauty is truth,—truth beauty".

The 20th century marked the beginning of a critical dispute over the final lines of the poem and their relationship to the beauty of the whole work. Poet laureate Robert Bridges sparked the debate when he argued:.

The thought as enounced in the first stanza is the supremacy of ideal art over Nature, because of its unchanging expression of perfect; and this is true and beautiful; but its amplification in the poem is unprogressive, monotonous, and scattered The last stanza enters stumbling upon a pun, but its concluding lines are very fine, and make a sort of recovery with their forcible directness.

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- An Ode to a Grecian Urn by John Keats John Keats's poem "An Ode to a Grecian Urn", is written encompassing both life and art. Keats uses a Grecian urn as a symbol of life. He refers to the Greek piece of art as being immortal, with its messages told in endless time.

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John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn and Ode to a Nightingale Essay Words | 6 Pages Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn and Ode to a Nightingale John Keats, in "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode to a Nightingale" attempts to connect with two objects of immortality to escape from the rigors of human life.

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"Ode on a Grecian urn" is a beautiful ode written by John Keats in 19th Century. There are five stanzas in total; every stanza has represented each scenes of the urn. In this poem, John Keats brought readers into a beautiful world through his image of a Grecian urn, which to him is a beautiful piece of art. In "Ode on a Grecian Urn," what is the meaning of "foster-child of silence and slow time?" In "Ode on a Grecian Urn," the speaker addresses the urn itself and the images on it. First, the speaker addresses .

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John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn and Ode to a Nightingale Essay Words | 6 Pages. John Keats' Ode on a Grecian Urn and Ode to a Nightingale John Keats, in "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode to a Nightingale" attempts to connect with two objects of immortality to escape from the rigors of human life. Ode On A Grecian Urn Summary In the first stanza, the speaker, standing before an ancient Grecian urn, addresses the urn, preoccupied with its depiction of pictures frozen in time 6 / Ode to a Grecian urn Summary In the first stanza, the speaker stands before an ancient Grecian urn and addresses it.