It is a relatively formless interview style that researchers use to establish rapport and comfort with the participant, and is extremely helpful when researchers are discussing sensitive topics. The researcher is expected to probe participants in order to obtain the most rich and in-depth information possible.
If you select this interview style, just keep in mind that you may have to conduct several rounds of interviews with your participants in order to gather all the information you need.
These are interviews that use an interview protocol to help guide the researcher through the interview process. While this can incorporate conversational aspects, it is mostly a guided conversation between the researcher and participant. It does maintain some structure hence the name semistructured , but it also provides the researcher with the ability to probe the participant for additional details.
If you decide to choose this interview method, understand that it offers a great deal of flexibility for you as a researcher. Don't count on your memory to recall their answers. Ask for permission to record the interview or bring along someone to take notes. Types of Interviews Informal, conversational interview - no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer "goes with the flow".
General interview guide approach - the guide approach is intended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach, but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting information from the interviewee.
Standardized, open-ended interview - here, the same open-ended questions are asked to all interviewees an open-ended question is where respondents are free to choose how to answer the question, i. Closed, fixed-response interview - where all interviewees are asked the same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of alternatives. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing.
Types of Topics in Questions Patton notes six kinds of questions. One can ask questions about: Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future. Sequence of Questions Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible. Before asking about controversial matters such as feelings and conclusions , first ask about some facts.
With this approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters. Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions, which tends to leave respondents disengaged. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future.
It's usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future. The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview. Wording of Questions Wording should be open-ended. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions. Questions should be as neutral as possible. Avoid wording that might influence answers, e.
Questions should be asked one at a time. Questions should be worded clearly. This includes knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents' culture. Be careful asking "why" questions. Also the language the interviewer uses should be appropriate to the vocabulary of the group of people being studied. It should be noted that interviews may not be the best method to use for researching sensitive topics e. Structured interviews are easy to replicate as a fixed set of closed questions are used, which are easy to quantify — this means it is easy to test for reliability.
Structured interviews are fairly quick to conduct which means that many interviews can take place within a short amount of time. This means a large sample can be obtained resulting in the findings being representative and having the ability to be generalized to a large population. Structure interviews are not flexible. This means new questions cannot be asked impromptu i.
The answers from structured interviews lack detail as only closed questions are asked which generates quantitative data. This means a research will won't know why a person behaves in a certain way. They are sometimes called informal interviews. An interview schedule might not be used, and even if one is used, they will contain open-ended questions that can be asked in any order. The interview can deviate from the interview schedule.
Unstructured interviews generate qualitative data through the use of open questions. This allows the respondent to talk in some depth, choosing their own words. It can be time consuming to conduct an unstructured interview and analyze the qualitative data using methods such as thematic analysis. Employing and training interviewers is expensive, and not as cheap as collecting data via questionnaires.
For example, certain skills may be needed by the interviewer.
Structured interviews: These are interviews that strictly adhere to the use of an interview protocol to guide the researcher. It is a more rigid interview style, in that only the .
A qualitative research interview seeks to cover both a factual and a meaning level, though it is usually more difficult to interview on a meaning level. (Kvale,) Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a Types of Interviews.
Advantages of interviews include possibilities of collecting detailed information about research questions. Moreover, in in this type of primary data collection researcher has direct control over the flow of process and she has a chance to clarify certain issues during the process if needed. Interviews can be structured, semi-structure or unstructured. In this section, we discuss five different types of interviews: Structured Interviews. Semi-Structured Interviews. Unstructured Interviews. Informal Interviews. Focus Groups. There are a number of ways to classify interviews by type.
Research Methods › Interviews. The Interview Method. Saul McLeod, published Interviews are different from questionnaires as they involve social interaction. Researchers can ask different types of questions which in turn generate different types of data. For example, closed questions provide people with a fixed set of responses Author: Saul Mcleod. Feb 18, · In this blog post I want to take some time looking at the different types of interviews for collecting data. Every qualitative researcher will at one time or another need to conduct research where they need to interview their research participant(s). In the view of the research (Burnard, Gill.